CONDITIONS TREATED

  • Kidney Stone Removal
    Kidney Stone Removal

    Kidney Stone is one of the most common urological disorders. It is most often seen in male as compare to female. The recent studies show that a million kidney stone cases are diagnosed annually. It however occurs in small children as well.

    Kidney stone is the Hardened crystalline mineral formed in the kidney or urinary tract. It is known as Nephrolithiasis in medical terms. Kidney stones are formed due to decrease in urine volume or if there is excess of stone forming substances in the urine. Dehydration is one of the main reason for the formation of kidney stone. Kidney stones are one of the most painful medical conditions.



    Signs and Symptoms

    • Pain and burn while urinating
    • Foul smelling urine



    Diagnosis of kidney stones

    Diagnosis of kidney stone is generally done with the help of radiological tools like an ultrasound and x-rays. Following are the tests used to confirm the presence of kidney stones

    • Kidney Function Test
    • Complete Blood Count
    • CT Urography
    • Urine Routine & Microscopy
    • abdominal X-rays
    • abdominal CT scan
    • MRI of the abdomen and kidneys



    Treatments for Kidney Stone

    Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

    In this process, the patient is given spinal anesthesia. The surgeon then makes incisions through an Instrument called a nephoscope from the back to the kidney The surgeon then inserts A telescope along with the mechanical lithotripter to break the stone into fine particles



    Lithotripsy

    Another method to treat kidney stone is Lithotripsy. It uses a strong sound wave from outside the body in order to break the large kidney stones into small particles, which can be passed through urine. This type of treatment is suitable for all the age group



    Ureteroscopy

    Ureteroscopy is a type of treatment to remove stone that is stuck in the ureter or bladder through an instrument called a ureteroscope. A small wire basket along with the camera is inserted into the lower ureter via the bladder. A small cage grabs the stone and pulls the stone. There is a small risk of infection, bleeding, or injury to the ureter



    Medication

    Minor Stone and the pain can also be treated by some medications. Intake of some antibiotics will help to cure the infection present. The surgeon would first try to treat with the medication and observe accordingly if still the pain continues he would then suggest to undergo a surgery




    Reasons for Kidney stone

    There are many factors that cause kidney stones. People between the age group of 20 and 40 generally face this problem. The chances of kidney stone is most likely in men than women. The factors that cause kidney stones are

    • Drinking less water/ Dehydration
    • Obesity
    • If any of your family has kidney stones, there are chances you may develop stones too.
    • High intake of protein, sodium and sugar increases the chances of kidney stone.
    • Gastric bypass surgery
    • Taking medications such as calcium-based antacids
  • Kidney Transplant
    Kidney Transplant

    The human kidney works in removing of waste products from the blood and regulating the water fluid levels. Once the kidney stops functioning, it is known as kidney failure.
    When the kidney of an individual a new fails, a new kidney is transplanted through an operation.



    Signs and Symptoms

    • Low passage of urine
    • Feeling nausea and vomiting
    • Tiredness
    • Swelling of feet and face
    • Loss of appetite
    • Dehydration
    • Bleeding
    • Bone pain
    • Itching
    • Shortness of breath


    Types

    Living donor kidney transplant

    Living donor is someone who is alive and donates his kidney. He may be anyone like your spouse, relative, friend or it might be a stranger.

    Deceased donor kidney transplant

    A deceased donor is someone who wishes to donate the kidney after his/her death. The kidney of the deceased person is then transferred to someone in need.



    Causes of kidney failure

    • Diabetes
    • High blood pressure
    • Kidney failure due to stone
    • Loss of blood flow to kidneys
    • Blood clot in kidney
    • Intake of drugs and alcohol
    • Due to dyes that are used in certain imaging tests



    Risk Involved

    • Infection
    • Bleeding
    • Rejection of the new kidney
    • Reaction of anesthesia
    • Failure of donor kidney
    • Blood clot
  • Bladder Cancer
    Bladder Cancer

    Bladder is the part of the urinary tract that stores urine. Abnormal growth of bladder cells leads to bladder cancer and it is a very common type of cancer. Men are at a higher risk of getting bladder cancer than women.




    Reason For Bladder Cancer

    • Diet high in saturated fat
    • Personal history of bladder cancer
    • Some medications and dietary supplements
    • Age
    • Smoking cigarettes
    • Bladder defects from birth
    • Low fluid consumption
    • Exposure to certain chemicals


    Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

    • Blood in urine
    • Frequent urination
    • Pain upon urination
    • Back pain
    • Swelling in feet


    Diagnosis

    • Physical examination
    • Urinalysis
    • Urine cytology
    • Ct scan
    • Biopsy
    • Ultrasound


    Treatments

    Treatment involves removing of entire bladder and reconstruction. Treating bladder cancer completely depends on the cancer type and stage. Other forms of treatment involve radiation therapy where high doses of X- ray are used to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy; where cancer cells are killed by medicines, Immunotherapy; that causes the body's natural defense system to attack bladder cancer cells.

  • Urethral Stricture
    Urethral Stricture

    Surgery
    The other option is open urethroplasty which is done for longer and severe strictures. In this procedure, the affected tissues are removed and the urethra is reconstructed.




    Reason For Urethral Stricture

    • Catheter insertion
    • Surgery performed on the prostate
    • Pelvic fractures
    • Radiation


    Symptoms of urethral stricture

    • Reduction in the volume of urine
    • Frequent urges to urinate
    • Burning while urination
    • Pain in lower abdominal area
    • Swelling and pain
    • Darkening of the urine


    Diagnosis

    • Urinary flow test
    • Pelvic ultrasound
    • Cystoscopy
    • Urinalysis
    • Urethral ultrasound
    • Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


    Treatments

    Non surgical: The urethra is made wider through a medical instrument called dilator. This is an outpatient procedure, the patient do not have to stay overnight for the treatment. A small wire is inserted through the urethra and to the bladder to begin to dilate it. Gradually the larger dilators will increase the width of the urethra.

    Another option is to permanent urinary catheter placement. This is done in the most severe cases. There are some risks involved in this like bladder irritation and urinary tract infections.

    Surgery:
    The other option is open urethroplasty this done for longer and severe strictures. In this procedure the affected tissue are removed and the urethra are reconstructed

  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
    Urinary tract infection (UTI)

    This type of infection occurs when the bacteria enters the opening of the urethra and multiplies in the urinary tract. It is a most common infection. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. This infection can be developed in men, women and children




    Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection

    • Fever
    • Back pain
    • Frequently urinate
    • Pain during urination
    • Blood in the urine
    • General discomfort
    • Nausea
    • Feeling tired


    Prevention

    • Avoid constipation.
    • Urinate after sexual intercourse.
    • Drink plenty of water
    • Avoid products that may irritate the urethra
    • Cleanse the genital area before sexual intercourse.
    • Do not routinely resist the urge to urinate.
    • Intense urge to urinate


    Tests

    • Urine Sample
    • Blood tests.


    Reasons for Urinary tract infections

    Urinary tract infections are caused due to some microbes like bacteria. Men, females and evern children might be afflicted with UTI. The following factors increases the risk of UTI:

    • Intake of antibiotics
    • Pregnancy
    • Menopause
    • Suppressed immune system
    • Some forms of contraception
    • Diabetes
    • Sexual intercourse specially done with different partners
    • Having a urinary catheter
    • Blocked flow of urine
    • Kidney stones
    • Immobility for a long period


    Treatments

    The urinary tract infections are caused due to bacteria, and this can be treated by antibiotics. The doctor advices to complete the medicine course as prescribed, in order to ensure the infection is fully clear. UTI symptoms can disappear before the infection has completely gone. The patient suffering from UTI should intake more fluids and urinate frequently as this will help to flush out the bacteria.

  • Prostate Cancer
    Prostate Cancer

    This is most common in men. Prostate cancer is one of the common cause of cancer related death. Prostate cancer is caused when the cells in the prostate grow and multiply uncontrollably. Prostate cancer at the early stage can be discovered during a routine digital rectal examination. It is more common is men from western countries.




    Symptoms


    • Pain during urination
    • Frequent Urination
    • Blood in urine
    • Pain in back, Hips and thighs
    • Difficulty in urination
    • Painful ejaculation
    • Burn during urination
    • Feeling tired


    Treatment

    The treatment of prostate cancer depends upon the stage of the disease and patient's age and overall health. Untreated prostate cancer may take years to become problematic. Treatment can be done through:


    • Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
    • Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy
    • Screening Programme (Urological / Cancer)


    Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    • Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
    • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests
    • Trans-rectal Ultrasound Scan (TRUS)


    Causes

    • Age
    • Genetics
    • Diet
    • Medication
    • Obesity
    • Sexually transmitted diseases
    • Agent Orange
  • Enlarged Prostate
    Enlarged Prostate

    The porstate is a gland, the size of a walnut. It is only present in men. It is situated below the bladder and surrounds the urethra. The prostate gland produces the prostatic fluid that is one of the components of semen. The prostate starts enlarging slowly after the age of 40 and by the age of 70 almost one in every three men have significant symptoms requiring treatment.




    Symptoms


    • Formation of stone in bladder
    • Repeated urine infection
    • Inability to pass urine
    • Urge to urine frequently
    • Difficulty in passing urine
    • Feeling that the bladder is not empty after urination
    • Blood in urine
    • Leakage of urine


    Diagnosis

    • Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
    • Uroflowmetry (Urine flow test)
    • PSA Test
    • Ultrasound test (including post void residue measurement)
    • AUA Symptom Index
    • Post-Void Residual (PVR)


    Treatment

    Medical Treatment

    At the early stage the problem can be treated with the medicines to relax and reduce the size of the prostate. Proper medications should be taken for a long term to avoid reoccurance of the problem. Surgery is an option if the medicines fail to respond.



    Holmium Laser for Enlarged Prostate

    This is the latest technique used for the treatment. It is performed under anaesthetic. A telescope is inserted through the penis to the prostate, so as to cut the prostate lobes into very small pieces which are later removed with a suction device. Finally, a catheter is placed in the penis to drain the bladder overnight. The procedure takes around 45-90 mins depending on the size of the gland.

    Causes
    • Age is an major factor for a developed enlarged prostate
    • A small amount of prostate enlargement is present in many men over age 40. More than 90% of men over age 80 have the condition.
    • Changes in hormone balance
  • Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract
    Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract

    Congenital anomalies of kidney are mostly found in children. The spectrum includes common anomalies like vesicoureteral reflux and more severe malformations like bilateral renal agenesis. In children, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of kidney failure and for kidney transplantation or dialysis. The role of prenatal interventions and postnatal therapies as well as the benefits of screening affected individuals and their family members are not clear.




    The following renal malformations arise when this process is disrupted


    • Renal agenesis
    • Renal hypoplasia
    • Renal dysplasia
    • Renal hypo dysplasia





    Symptoms of advanced chronic diseases

    • Hypertension
    • Anemia
    • Bone Disease
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Vomiting
    • Nausea
  • What is Urodynamics?
    What is Urodynamics?

    A urodynamic test shows how your bladder acts when it fills and empties. This will help us know the best way to treat your bladder problem



    What is the need of Urodynamics?

    Urodynamics is the procedure that helps to find the cause of problems related to the below listed:


    1. Urinary incontinence
    2. Frequent urination
    3. Painful urination
    4. Sudden urge to urinate
    5. Difficulty urinating
    6. Recurrent urinary tract infections

    Urodynamic helps to demonstrate the reason beyond the symptoms and the needed treatments to address the issue. Not everyone with bladder issues will need Urodynamics.


    What happens during the test?

    Most of the urodynamic test usually does not require any specific preparations. In most cases, patients can go ahead following their normal routine. However, in some particular instances, there can be the need for slight alterations in the fluid intake in the preceding hours' post examination.

    In some particular test, there is an off the bladder to be full of being full of urine for the test to be conducted. In this case, the patient may be advised to come to the clinic with a full bladder as the procedure can proceed if the same is not done.



    How Does the Lower Urinary Tract Usually Work?

    The urinary tract includes the bladder and the urethra. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that stores urine, which is made in the kidneys. It’s held in place by pelvic muscles in the lower part of your belly.

    The bladder is relaxed when it isn’t full. Nerve signals through the brain let you know that your bladder is full or not. When it is full, you feel the need to release urine. The brain signal the bladder muscles to squeeze (or "contract"). teh bladder pressure helps urine to pass out through the urethra.

    Urethra has muscles called sphincters. They help keep the urethra closed so you don’t leak before its time. These sphincters open up to release urine when the bladder contracts.


  • Kidney Stone Removal
    Kidney Stone Removal
    Kidney Stone is one of the most common urological disorders. It is most often seen in male as compare to female. The recent studies show that a million kidney stone cases are diagnosed annually. It however occurs in small children as well.

    Kidney stone is the Hardened crystalline mineral formed in the kidney or urinary tract. It is known as Nephrolithiasis in medical terms. Kidney stones are formed due to decrease in urine volume or if there is excess of stone forming substances in the urine. Dehydration is one of the main reason for the formation of kidney stone. Kidney stones are one of the most painful medical conditions.

    Signs and Symptoms
    • Pain and burn while urinating
    • Foul smelling urine

    Diagnosis of kidney stones
    Diagnosis of kidney stone is generally done with the help of radiological tools like an ultrasound and x-rays. Following are the tests used to confirm the presence of kidney stones

    • Kidney Function Test • Complete Blood Count • CT Urography
    • Urine Routine & Microscopy
    • abdominal X-rays
    • abdominal CT scan
    • MRI of the abdomen and kidneys

    Treatments for Kidney Stone

    Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
    In this process, the patient is given spinal anesthesia. The surgeon then makes incisions through an Instrument called a nephoscope from the back to the kidney The surgeon then inserts A telescope along with the mechanical lithotripter to break the stone into fine particles

    Lithotripsy
    Another method to treat kidney stone is Lithotripsy. It uses a strong sound wave from outside the body in order to break the large kidney stones into small particles, which can be passed through urine. This type of treatment is suitable for all the age group

    Ureteroscopy
    Ureteroscopy is a type of treatment to remove stone that is stuck in the ureter or bladder through an instrument called a ureteroscope. A small wire basket along with the camera is inserted into the lower ureter via the bladder. A small cage grabs the stone and pulls the stone. There is a small risk of infection, bleeding, or injury to the ureter

    Medication
    Minor Stone and the pain can also be treated by some medications. Intake of some antibiotics will help to cure the infection present. The surgeon would first try to treat with the medication and observe accordingly if still the pain continues he would then suggest to undergo a surgery

    Reasons for Kidney stone
    There are many factors that cause kidney stones. People between the age group of 20 and 40 generally face this problem. The chances of kidney stone is most likely in men than women. The factors that cause kidney stones are
    • Drinking less water/ Dehydration

    • Obesity
    • If any of your family has kidney stones, there are chances you may develop stones too.
    • High intake of protein, sodium and sugar increases the chances of kidney stone.
    • Gastric bypass surgery
    • Taking medications such as calcium-based antacids
  • Kidney Transplant
    Kidney Transplant
    The human kidney works in removing of waste products from the blood and regulating the water fluid levels. Once the kidney stops functioning, it is known as kidney failure.
    When the kidney of an individual a new fails, a new kidney is transplanted through an operation.

    Signs and Symptoms
    • Low passage of urine
    • Feeling nausea and vomiting
    • Tiredness
    • Swelling of feet and face
    • Loss of appetite
    • Dehydration
    • Bleeding
    • Bone pain
    • Itching
    • Shortness of breath

    Types

    Living donor kidney transplant
    Living donor is someone who is alive and donates his kidney. He may be anyone like your spouse, relative, friend or it might be a stranger.

    Deceased donor kidney transplant
    A deceased donor is someone who wishes to donate the kidney after his/her death. The kidney of the deceased person is then transferred to someone in need.

    Causes of kidney failure
    • Diabetes
    • High blood pressure
    • Kidney failure due to stone
    • Loss of blood flow to kidneys
    • Blood clot in kidney
    • Intake of drugs and alcohol
    • Due to dyes that are used in certain imaging tests

    Risk Involved
    • Infection
    • Bleeding
    • Rejection of the new kidney
    • Reaction of anesthesia
    • Failure of donor kidney
    • Blood clot
  • Bladder Cancer
    Bladder Cancer
    Bladder is the part of the urinary tract that stores urine. Abnormal growth of bladder cells leads to bladder cancer and it is a very common type of cancer. Men are at a higher risk of getting bladder cancer than women.

    Reason For Bladder Cancer
    • Pain and burn while urinating
    • Personal history of bladder cancer
    • Some medications and dietary supplements
    • Age
    • Smoking cigarettes
    • Bladder defects from birth
    • Low fluid consumption
    • Exposure to certain chemicals

    Symptoms of Bladder Cancer
    • Blood in urine
    • Frequent urination
    • Pain upon urination
    • Back pain
    • Swelling in feet
    Diagnosis

    • Physical examination • Urinalysis • Urine cytology
    • Ct scan
    • Biopsy
    • Ultrasound

    Treatments
    Treatment involves removing of entire bladder and reconstruction. Treating bladder cancer completely depends on the cancer type and stage. Other forms of treatment involve radiation therapy where high doses of X- ray are used to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy; where cancer cells are killed by medicines, Immunotherapy; that causes the body's natural defense system to attack bladder cancer cells.
  • Urethral Stricture
    Urethral Stricture
    Surgery
    The other option is open urethroplasty which is done for longer and severe strictures. In this procedure, the affected tissues are removed and the urethra is reconstructed.

    Reason For Urethral Stricture
    • Catheter insertion
    • Surgery performed on the prostate
    • Pelvic fractures
    • Radiation

    Symptoms of urethral stricture
    • Reduction in the volume of urine
    • Frequent urges to urinate
    • Burning while urination
    • Pain in lower abdominal area
    • Swelling and pain
    • Darkening of the urine

    Diagnosis

    • Urinary flow test • Pelvic ultrasound • Cystoscopy
    • Urinalysis
    • Urethral ultrasound
    • Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Treatments
    Non surgical: The urethra is made wider through a medical instrument called dilator. This is an outpatient procedure, the patient do not have to stay overnight for the treatment. A small wire is inserted through the urethra and to the bladder to begin to dilate it. Gradually the larger dilators will increase the width of the urethra.
    Another option is to permanent urinary catheter placement. This is done in the most severe cases. There are some risks involved in this like bladder irritation and urinary tract infections.

    Surgery:
    The other option is open urethroplasty this done for longer and severe strictures. In this procedure the affected tissue are removed and the urethra are reconstructed
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
    Urinary tract infection (UTI)
    This type of infection occurs when the bacteria enters the opening of the urethra and multiplies in the urinary tract. It is a most common infection. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. This infection can be developed in men, women and children

    Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection
    • Fever
    • Back pain

    • Frequently urinate
    • Blood in the urine
    • General discomfort
    • Nausea
    • Feeling tired

    Prevention
    • Avoid constipation.
    • Urinate after sexual intercourse.
    • Drink plenty of water
    • Avoid products that may irritate the urethra
    • Cleanse the genital area before sexual intercourse.
    • Do not routinely resist the urge to urinate.
    • Intense urge to urinate

    Tests

    • Urine Sample • Blood tests.

    Reasons for Urinary tract infections
    Urinary tract infections are caused due to some microbes like bacteria. Men, females and evern children might be afflicted with UTI. The following factors increases the risk of UTI:
    • Intake of antibiotics
    • Pregnancy
    • Menopause
    • Suppressed immune system
    • Some forms of contraception
    • Diabetes
    • Sexual intercourse specially done with different partners
    • Having a urinary catheter
    • Blocked flow of urine
    • Kidney stones
    • Immobility for a long period
    Treatments

    The urinary tract infections are caused due to bacteria, and this can be treated by antibiotics. The doctor advices to complete the medicine course as prescribed, in order to ensure the infection is fully clear. UTI symptoms can disappear before the infection has completely gone. The patient suffering from UTI should intake more fluids and urinate frequently as this will help to flush out the bacteria.
  • Prostate Cancer
    Prostate Cancer
    This is most common in men. Prostate cancer is one of the common cause of cancer related death. Prostate cancer is caused when the cells in the prostate grow and multiply uncontrollably. Prostate cancer at the early stage can be discovered during a routine digital rectal examination. It is more common is men from western countries.

    Symptoms
    • Pain during urination
    • Frequent Urination

    • Blood in urine
    • Pain in back, Hips and thighs
    • Difficulty in urination
    • Painful ejaculation
    • Burn during urination
    • Feeling tired

    Treatment
    The treatment of prostate cancer depends upon the stage of the disease and patient's age and overall health. Untreated prostate cancer may take years to become problematic. Treatment can be done through: • Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
    • Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy
    • Screening Programme (Urological / Cancer)

    Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    • Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests • Trans-rectal Ultrasound Scan (TRUS)

    Causes
    • Age
    • Genetics
    • Diet
    • Medication
    • Obesity
    • Sexually transmitted diseases
    • Agent Orange
  • Enlarged Prostate
    Enlarged Prostate
    The porstate is a gland, the size of a walnut. It is only present in men. It is situated below the bladder and surrounds the urethra. The prostate gland produces the prostatic fluid that is one of the components of semen. The prostate starts enlarging slowly after the age of 40 and by the age of 70 almost one in every three men have significant symptoms requiring treatment.

    Symptoms
    • Formation of stone in bladder
    • Repeated urine infection

    • Inability to pass urine
    • Urge to urine frequently
    • Difficulty in passing urine
    • Feeling that the bladder is not empty after urination
    • Blood in urine
    • Leakage of urine

    Diagnosis
    • Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
    • Uroflowmetry (Urine flow test)
    • PSA Test
    • Ultrasound test (including post void residue measurement)
    • AUA Symptom Index
    • Post-Void Residual (PVR)

    Treatment
    Medical Treatment
    At the early stage the problem can be treated with the medicines to relax and reduce the size of the prostate. Proper medications should be taken for a long term to avoid reoccurance of the problem. Surgery is an option if the medicines fail to respond.

    Holmium Laser for Enlarged Prostate
    This is the latest technique used for the treatment. It is performed under anaesthetic. A telescope is inserted through the penis to the prostate, so as to cut the prostate lobes into very small pieces which are later removed with a suction device. Finally, a catheter is placed in the penis to drain the bladder overnight. The procedure takes around 45-90 mins depending on the size of the gland.
    Causes
    • Age is an major factor for a developed enlarged prostate • A small amount of prostate enlargement is present in many men over age 40. More than 90% of men over age 80 have the condition. • Changes in hormone balance
  • Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract
    Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract

    Congenital anomalies of kidney are mostly found in children. The spectrum includes common anomalies like vesicoureteral reflux and more severe malformations like bilateral renal agenesis. In children, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of kidney failure and for kidney transplantation or dialysis. The role of prenatal interventions and postnatal therapies as well as the benefits of screening affected individuals and their family members are not clear.




    The following renal malformations arise when this process is disrupted


    • Renal agenesis
    • Renal hypoplasia
    • Renal dysplasia
    • Renal hypo dysplasia





    Symptoms of advanced chronic diseases

    • Hypertension
    • Anemia
    • Bone Disease
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Vomiting
    • Nausea
  • What is Urodynamics?
    What is Urodynamics?

    A urodynamic test shows how your bladder acts when it fills and empties. This will help us know the best way to treat your bladder problem



    What is the need of Urodynamics?

    Urodynamics is the procedure that helps to find the cause of problems related to the below listed:


    1. Urinary incontinence
    2. Frequent urination
    3. Painful urination
    4. Sudden urge to urinate
    5. Difficulty urinating
    6. Recurrent urinary tract infections

    Urodynamic helps to demonstrate the reason beyond the symptoms and the needed treatments to address the issue. Not everyone with bladder issues will need Urodynamics.


    What happens during the test?

    Most of the urodynamic test usually does not require any specific preparations. In most cases, patients can go ahead following their normal routine. However, in some particular instances, there can be the need for slight alterations in the fluid intake in the preceding hours' post examination.

    In some particular test, there is an off the bladder to be full of being full of urine for the test to be conducted. In this case, the patient may be advised to come to the clinic with a full bladder as the procedure can proceed if the same is not done.



    How Does the Lower Urinary Tract Usually Work?

    The urinary tract includes the bladder and the urethra. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that stores urine, which is made in the kidneys. It’s held in place by pelvic muscles in the lower part of your belly.

    The bladder is relaxed when it isn’t full. Nerve signals through the brain let you know that your bladder is full or not. When it is full, you feel the need to release urine. The brain signal the bladder muscles to squeeze (or "contract"). teh bladder pressure helps urine to pass out through the urethra.

    Urethra has muscles called sphincters. They help keep the urethra closed so you don’t leak before its time. These sphincters open up to release urine when the bladder contracts.